The village of Walajah is situated west of Bethlehem. Its population was displaced in the 1948 war and many of its residents moved to refugee camps, particularly the Dheisheh camp in Bethlehem. In 1967 Walajah was occupied, like the other Palestinian cities and villages of the West Bank. The people of Walajah, some 3,000 residents, are registered as refugees with the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestinian refugees.

Walajah is negatively impacted by the Separation Wall, which cuts the village off from its agricultural lands. The wall besieges and isolates Walajah from the nearly Israeli settlement of Har Gilo, meaning Walajah residents can only enter and exit their own homes from one road of the neighbouring town of Beit Jala. This intentional isolation of Walajah from its natural surroundings harms the social and economic life of the residents, preventing others from accessing it. In several areas the Separation Wall is situated only meters away from residential homes, essentially transforming them into prisons.

The Separation Wall further isolates most of the agricultural land so that residents can only access their land through gates that are often closed. Moreover, the wall prevents the natural, urban development of the village area and residents are at times kept from returning home when they are denied passage through area checkpoints.